Migratory phenomenon and expressivesandwork in vulnerable populations. Mónica Pinilla.

Ana Deligiannis, Buenos Aires, Argentina and Mónica Pinilla, Bogotá,

Colombia

Abstract: In these times the migratory phenomenon is a crisis with alarming dimensions
worldwide. Wars, human rights violations and violence within borders have pushed
many people to seek asylum or have forced internal displacement. We approach this
phenomenon taking into account the cultural complexes, understanding it as a process
with multiple psychological, social and existential effects for those who suffer it. We
find these effects symbolized in many of the processes of the children participating in
Expressive Sandwork projects. Expressive Sandwork is a transcultural, non-verbal
method of therapeutic care that offers psychological support to children from
vulnerable populations where psychotherapy is deficient or non-existent. The aim is to
allow the emergence of images that favour reconnection with the child’s creative
potential, activating the process of self-regulation of the psyche. Its basis in symbolic
processes and empathetic accompaniment makes it a Jungian psychosocial intervention
for these times of transition. In Latin America, Expressive Sandwork projects have
been implemented in Colombia and Argentina. Two examples of the participating
children are presented.
Keywords: children in vulnerable communities, cultural complex, Expressive
Sandwork, Latin American examples, migrations, psychosocial method, refugees and
displaced persons

Butterflies and swallows and flamingos have always flown away from the cold, year
after year, and whales swim in search of other seas, and salmons and trouts in
search of their rivers. They travel thousands of miles across the free paths of air and
water. But the paths of human exodus are not free.

(Eduardo Galeano, n.d., ‘Los Emigrantes, ahora’ [‘Migrants, now’])
We are undergoing a health, economic, political and cultural global crisis. A
broad-spectrum crisis, we could say. These are difficult times of
reaccommodation of usual situations; perhaps the opportunity to reconsider
the matters related to the care of the other, of the environment, the equality
0021-8774/2022/6701/88 © 2022, The Society of Analytical Psychology
Published by Wiley Publishing, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA.
DOI: 10.1111/1468-5922.12751
Journal of Analytical Psychology, 2022, 67, 1, 88–104

of rights and opportunities, the excesses committed. These are transition times.
Which one? Where to? We do not know, it is hard to foresee, but these are
inexorable times, with their own promising and abject characteristics.
Expressive Sandwork (ES) is a social and trans-cultural method based on the
theoretical foundations of C.G. Jung and designed for vulnerable communities
and disaster settings. This method allows children to connect with their inner
world: either for the traumatic experiences or for their own creative potential,
each one with its complexity and its uniqueness. It is not ‘asistencialismo’
1
nor does it have pedagogical pretensions. It is a method that offers a frame
for the psyche to express or manifest what it needs within a horizon of
possibilities. It has therapeutic effects and it is carried out in places where
psychotherapy is not available or is insufficient.
This method involves expressive work carried out by the children in the
presence of adults who offer empathic accompaniment and provide support in
order to facilitate the connection with their inner world. It is also a work of a
bonding nature that takes place in a group and it is made possible by the
group. For this reason, we cannot forget the importance of the supportive
group in the whole realization. The box, the volunteer, the group, the group
support person, the silence and the institution play their role as containment
circles.
There are already 11 countries carrying out ES projects2 around the world:
China, Malaysia, India, Palestine, Ukraine, Romania, Italy, Germany, South
Africa, Colombia and Argentina. And the communities involved are diverse:
children from vulnerable neighborhoods who have suffered due to negligence,
abuse or violence; institutionalized children waiting to be adopted or suffering
from chronic illnesses; children in war situations (Ukraine, Palestine,
Colombia); refugees (in Malaysia, the Roghinya from Myanmar and in
Germany, the Yazidis from Syria or the refugees from Africa).
In this context of diversity, there is something shared by many of these
children: the effects of the migratory phenomenon. These times of transition
have made the migratory phenomenon one of the most alarming global crisis,
with a considerable increase in the last decade. According to the World
Migration Report by the UN’s International Organization for Migration
(Organización Internacional para las Migraciones [OIM 2020]), the total
number of international migrants was 272 million in 2019.

1 ‘asistencialismo’ – the closest (but not exact) translation of this Spanish word is ‘welfare’.
However, asistencialismo implies something negative because it substitutes (replaces) the action of
the other.
2 All the ES projects are implemented and regulated by the International Association for Expressive
Sandwork (IAES)
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The migratory phenomenon and its consequences
Migration is a complex phenomenon that generates psychosocial changes and
affects identity. It changes the landscape, the place where people live, their
affections, sometimes the language, and losses, nostalgia, discrimination and
social exclusion appear. A multifaceted identity is configured, with suffering
and richness, with identification and dis-identification processes that ‘change
the psychic structure’ of migrants (Vispo & Podruzny 2002). As for the
psychological effects, we can find them symbolized by many of the children
who participate in the ES projects.
According to the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE, for its
acronym in Spanish)3

, the word ́migrate ́, which comes from Latin migrare,
means moving from the place you live to another. Something changes,
primarily, the inhabited land. Thus, migrants are left in exile (in Spanish,
des-terrados, without land), but also terrified (in Spanish, a-terrados, without
land). In the words of Salamanovitz (2014), migrations are terrifying
transitions because they disrupt cultural and linguistic references, they involve
changing cultural habits and, most of the times, the language. In short, a
change of one’s subjectivity. The situations that force them to go into exile
(des-tierro) are usually very traumatic. This is the case of the Yazidis in Syria
who were victims of murder (a genocide, according to the UN), torture, abuse
and slavery of women and girls, and were forced to sail overseas to seek
refuge in Europe, many of them in Germany; or the Rohingyas, who suffered
persecution and extreme violence because they were not considered as citizens
and had to emigrate from Myanmar, many of them moving to Malaysia; or
the cases of displacement in Colombia, where people had to migrate from the
countryside to the city as a result of violence and armed conflicts. Other
examples are the cases of Ukraine and Palestine due to the war context in
these countries. Less traumatic cases are found in other countries such as
Argentina, where displacement from neighbouring countries or within the
country occurs mostly in search of a better standard of living and improved
working conditions, healthcare and education opportunities. All these
countries have carried out ES projects, and many are the children who have
already benefited from this method. This diversity of cultures denotes its
trans-cultural dimension.
Do those who are left without their land, those who migrate, look – as
Lamberti (2018) says – at the remains of their memory as a puzzle with
missing pieces? Fragmented, disintegrated pieces. How can they be
reconstructed, then?
Beyond the specific differences, many of the migrants long to return to their
land, to their snatched body-language, and have to struggle between their

3 Real Academia Española
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origin (the lost paradise) and the new adaptation. How can they weave that new
culture into their own body, into their own psyche? In this regard, according to
Salamanovitz (2014) ‘every migration struggles between mourning and
melancholy. That is to say, between life and death. It is a mutation of the
soul’. Something needs to die; something has to be gestated in the new place.
At the expense of much suffering and helplessness, something is broken, torn,
something is missed, something intermingles and transmutes. For Carvallo,
upon arriving at the new place, one becomes aware of the lost social identity,
and he adds:
Our new environment is strange to us, and it often activates a paranoid nucleus that
deepens that feeling of strangeness. On the other hand, the natives of that
environment in many situations project on us shadow aspects that make them feel
threatened and activate defensive behaviors such as the invisibilization or the
symbolic destruction of the other (othercide), which deepen our experience of the
loss of the social fabric we knew. Again, we feel vulnerable and helpless. Orphans
… and with the feeling of being halfway between a land that was left behind and
another at which we are trying to arrive.

(Carvallo 2015, p. 8)
The fear of the foreigner, the xenophobia, activates some shadow behaviors of
rejection, exclusion and contempt towards migrants. As regards the external
and internal ‘other’, Jung notes:
To the same extent that he does not accept the other, he will not grant the right to
existence to the ‘other’ within himself, and vice versa. The capacity for internal
dialog is a scale for measuring external objectivity.

(Jung 1916, para. 187)

Migration is a human right – no human being is illegal
Beyond the fact that migration is a human right, what is our position and the
position of the receiving countries towards migrants? Jungian analyst Renos
Papadopoulos, Director of the Center for Trauma, Asylum and Refugees
(CTAR), refers to the issues of exclusion and assistentialism.
In addressing the phenomenon of migration, he states that migrants are
polarized or dichotomized into good or bad, vulnerable (damaged) or
dangerous, traumatized or resilient, those who are feared and must be
excluded or those affected who inspire compassion and must be helped.
Actually, the purpose is to generate and restore the dignity and rights that
were taken away from them. As Papadopoulos (2019) says, it is not about
helping them because they are traumatized or damaged, but because they are
worthy of being helped, because they have the right to protect their citizen
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rights and recover their dignity. Arendt (1981) stated that it is about the ‘right
to have rights’, a cosmopolitan principle that must be guaranteed for every
human being, whatever their place of birth or country of nationality.

Refugees and displaced persons
According to the United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
of 28 July 1951, a refugee is a person who is outside his country of nationality
or habitual residence owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for
reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group
or political opinion, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself of the
protection of that country.
Unlike refugees, who are people who have crossed the border because they
are fleeing persecution or armed violence, internally displaced persons (IDPs)
are, according to the United Nations definition:
Persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their
homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid
the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human
rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an
internationally recognized state border.

(NU, documento E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2 pág. 5)
This concept is widely used in countries like Colombia or the African continent.

Migration in Colombia and Argentina
In Colombia, during the second half of the 20th century, migration from the
countryside to the city has been characterized by forced displacement for
reasons of interests in land, and violence due to an internal conflict between
guerrillas, paramilitary groups and state defense forces. These conflicts
have taken place in the context of drug trafficking, in the midst of a society
with great social inequalities and marked differences between classes.
The migration phenomenon from the countryside to the city was also
characterized by the displacement of peasants in search of opportunities, due
to the adverse living conditions in the rural environment. According to
UNHCR, the United Nations Refugee Agency, Colombia is one of the
countries with the largest number of internally displaced persons, almost eight
million by 2018 (ACNUR 2019).
Migration and forced displacement in Colombia, rather than favouring an
encounter between rural and urban cultures, accentuated class divisions and
highlighted differences. The result was more inequalities and unequal access
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to social resources such as education, health care and culture. Often, those who
are displaced from the countryside have to be located in areas on the outskirts
of the city. Although they migrated in search of better living conditions, upon
arrival in the city they find a complex, clearly fragmented class society that
leads them to a situation of marginality, inequality and social exclusion.
We can also say that the consequences of discrimination and exclusion refer
to the Latin American cultural dynamics of conquest and colonization, and
makes us think about the underlying cultural complex, the very deep wounds
of our collective psyche.
Argentina, for instance, is a country that in addition to colonization by the
Spaniards was shaped by large migratory flows. Firstly, flows from Europe,
mainly Italy and Spain (between 1870 and 1950). Secondly considerable
Arab, Jewish, Slavic and even Japanese flows. These add to the constant
migratory flows from other Latin American countries such as Paraguay and
Bolivia, and more recently, Peru, Colombia and Venezuela, and also from
Asian countries such as Korea and China. As a consequence, the Argentine
population is heterogeneous, thus configuring an open and diverse country.

Cultural complexes and migration
Going back to the roots of our continent, Colombia and Argentina’s histories
were marked by conquest and colonization that, except for a few differences,
have left traumatic wounds that lie in our psychological-historical-social
ground, thus creating our cultural complexes. Abuse, destruction, rejection of
existing roots and denial of what is different are colonial and patriarchal
wounds that still persist.
When the conquerors arrived in South America, they were alone and with no
family, as opposed to what happened in the United States. As part of the
conquest, besides lands and wealth, the conquerors took indigenous women,
abused and raped them. Thus, a cultural dynamic was implanted in Latin
America focused on the principle of the power of men over women. In terms
of psychological dynamics, we can say that the father’s world defeated the
mother’s world, denying the value of its cultural tradition. This gave rise to a
mestizo population that denies part of their origin, since they do not know
the value of the feminine and maternal aspect that is characteristic of the
original indigenous peoples, leaving a mark on its culture that splits it,
generating a dissociation in psychological terms.
This history full of denial and disregard for the minorities can still be seen
these days in the processes of social exclusion. This exclusion is connected
with Latin-American cultural complexes that have emerged from the conquest
and the colonization of the so called ‘New World’. This process has violently
imposed a culture over the other, resulting in a crash between cultures. This
leads to a lack of knowledge and of value of Latin-American people of
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multicultural origin, with subsequent disregard for the other, especially for
indigenous people, African Americans, women, the poor, and vulnerable
individuals.
It is worth mentioning that migration also implies a necessary interplay
between at least two cultures: one’s own culture and the culture of the new
land. It is a psychic movement between the acceptance of something new and
the grief at what was left behind, a detachment from an important referent to
the soul, leaving the vernacular, the hometown, that territory that links us
with our origin. It is not only a matter of losing a land, but also of the
beloved terroir, that is why we speak of ‘des-terrados’.
Migration therefore implies a complex emotional transition process that also
involves a cultural adaptation, even when the transition occurs within the same
country. Apart from providing paths to deal with the individual trauma, ES also
considers the cultural backgrounds where the migratory phenomenon took
place.
Thus, we have approached a newly developed concept within analytical
psychology: cultural complexes. This concept expands the concept of a
cultural unconscious pointed out by Henderson, and it is defined by Singer
and Kaplinsky as follows:
Cultural complexes are based on frequently repeated historical experiences that have
taken roots in the collective psyche of a group and in the psyche of the individual
members of a group; and they express the archetypal values for the group. As such,
cultural complexes can be considered as the fundamental building blocks of an inner
sociology.

(Singer & Kaplinsky 2010, p. 8)
These complexes show the existence of another level of tension both in the
collective psyche of groups and in the psyche of individuals within a group,
because history is embedded in psyche over generations.

Socio-ethnic diversity
The diversity generated by migratory movements leads us inexorably to talk
about multiculturality and interculturality. Argentina, Colombia and other
Latin-American countries are characterized by a wide socio-ethnic diversity.
They are multiethnic and multilingual countries (Mendoza Suany et al. 2015).
Multiculturality refers to the existence of several cultures within the same
physical, geographical or social environment. It acknowledges the existent
cultural diversity and promotes the right to this diversity. It does not
necessarily mean that there should be an exchange between them (isolated
communities, neighbourhoods) and it is opposed to the tendency to unify
cultural forms.
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Interculturality, on the other hand, refers to interethnic, intralingual and
inter-religious relations. It is the interaction and exchange between different
groups and communities, where dialogue and respect are key words. Based on
the facts, every intercultural relation is subjected to conflicts, and usually
there are power issues between the parties; conflicts can be managed but
cannot be suppressed (Mendoza Suany et al. 2015).

Expressive sandwork experiences in Latin America
Colombia and Argentina are the two countries where ES projects have been
developed since the year 2008. Below we provide some experiences in which
we have observed how children tend to symbolically produce migration scenes.
The first case is a 10-year-old Colombian girl who suffered, along with her
family, a forced displacement from the countryside to the city because of the
violence. When they arrived in the capital city (Bogota), they were immersed
in a life full of danger in a place colloquially known as the ‘Bronx’.
After the first sandtray where she represents her current urban reality living in
a leasehold property (inquilinato), she produces this natural environment scene.
There is a central image with plenty of fish, ducks in a lake, surrounded by trees
and some babies sitting in chairs and women (including some fairies), in the
surrounding nature (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Natural environment scene

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Later, and in contrast, she represents a city scenario, full of houses built one
next to the other without any space between them, as she lives in the city, and at
the same time, at its side, she presents again the image of the lake with fishes.
This points out that nature still lives in her inner world and that both realities
remain inside of her. (Figure 2)

Very close to the city, and separated by a fence, there are tigers and pre-
Columbian totems. At the end of the session she says: ‘There are houses and

women praying, the low-part land was empty and everyone moved to that
place. There is a wall made of sticks that separate animals from the city, they
lurk. Totems are dead people that are being eaten by the animals’.
It appears an effort to integrate the countryside with her life in the city. At the
bottom, there are tigers eating dead people like totems, symbolizing the trauma
left by violence to their family.
In another of her sandtrays, the girl represents a scene described as follows: ‘It
is a jungle, two dinosaurs (the green ones) are fighting, the one behind wants to
eat them. The man wants to hunt a dinosaur, the woman wants to collect water
but she can’t; the dinosaur behind her wants to eat her’ (Figure 3).
The volunteer was emotionally impacted by the detail of the image showing
the dinosaur taking the young woman. Thanks to a report made by another
girl on the project to her schoolteacher, it was discovered that in the leasehold
property, where several participants of this project used to live, some girls
were sexually abused by one of the fathers, who had even raped his own
daughter. In her sandtray, the girl also symbolically represents this traumatic

Figure 2. City scenario and Nature

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situation: ‘the woman wants to collect water but she can’t; the dinosaur behind
her wants to eat her’. Due to the effective collaboration between several mothers
of the victims participating in the ES, this man was reported and finally sent to
jail.
Now we will show you an experience in Argentina. Daniel is 11 years old, his
parents are from Paraguay and they came to Argentina looking for a better life.
The boy lives with his mother and two brothers in a low-income
neighbourhood where the level of crimes, drugs and violence is usually
extensive. His father is an alcoholic and becomes violent when he is drunk,
especially with his mother. He used to physically abuse her until she reported
him to the police. The mother states: ‘Then, as he could not touch me, he
verbally abused me all the time. The boys would lock themselves in their
room. The police came on some occasions, and I ended up at the hospital
several times. Once he broke my teeth, another time he almost strangled me.
My daughter, who was just a kid, pounced on him and saved my life. He
killed a person one month ago, and this is why he left the country’.
From the 12 sessions of the process, most sandtrays from Daniel include
battles, cage fighting and, especially, barriers and fences that divide the box.

Figure 3. Dinosaurs in the jungle

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Figure 4. Battlefield

Figure 5. Island as a mandala

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In the first session, there was the image of a ‘battlefield’ (Figure 4), according to
the description made by the boy at the end of the session.
Then, in session 8 the image appears as mandala and the boy says, ‘It is an
island’ (Figure 5).
And in the last session, there is this crane with an arm that extends through
the fence joining both parts of the land (Figure 6). The separated parts can
start to get integrated and give rise to something new: a new creative space
that should be built from the traumatic experiences in order to give them a
new meaning. In this representation of his inner world, it seems that the
threatened ego does not need an impenetrable fence to contain the traumatic
experiences. He can do something with it: go out from the dissociation and
build something new. The boy states: ‘It is a construction. The crane is lifting
the materials so that the man can put them in the right place’.
According to his mother, Daniel is a shy, lonely boy who struggles to express
himself and ‘since he started coming here, I have noted he has become more
demonstrative, he tells me what he does and talks to me about his things’.

Conclusion
Following the premise that the psyche has a natural tendency to restore itself
under appropriate conditions (Pattis Zoja 2016), we can point out that the
processes above-mentioned show how ES, using symbolic play, creative
imagination and the self-regulation of the psyche, can contribute to repair
individual and collective conflicts. The different situations of migration and

Figure 6. A construction

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violence pose challenges to understanding in these times of transition. As
Jungian analysts, it is necessary to ‘find a bridge that allows us to get out
from the psychic and geopolitical dissociation’ (Jung 1957, para. 557), in
order to re-elaborate the tensions between the individual and the collective,
the people in exile (des-terrados) and the citizens, the traumatized and the
resilient individuals, the socially excluded and the need for respect for the
other, keeping in mind both dignity and solidarity.
Paraphrasing Walter Mignolo (in García Linera, Mignolo & Walsh 2014),
we can end up asking ourselves: Is it possible that other worlds are possible?
Other worlds where many worlds fit? And not a few and hegemonic ones?
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TRANSLATIONS OF ABSTRACT

A notre époque le phénomène migratoire est une crise qui a des dimensions alarmantes
au niveau mondial. Les guerres, les violations des droits humains et la violence au sein
même des frontières ont poussé de nombreuses personnes à chercher asile à l’étranger,
ou les ont forcées à un déplacement à l’intérieur des frontières. Nous abordons ce
phénomène en prenant en compte les complexes culturels. Nous le comprenons comme
un processus ayant de multiples effets psychologiques, sociaux et existentiels pour les
personnes qui en souffrent. Nous observons ces effets symbolisés dans de nombreux
processus des enfants qui participent aux projets de travail expressif à l’aide du jeu de
sable (Expressive Sandwork). L’Expressive Sandwork est une méthode de soin
thérapeutique transculturelle et non-verbale qui offre du soutien psychologique à des

enfants de populations vulnérables quand la psychothérapie est déficiente ou non-
existante. Le but en est de permettre l’émergence d’images qui favorisent le

rétablissement du potentiel créatif de l’enfant, activant ainsi le processus
d’autorégulation de la psyché. Son enracinement dans les processus symboliques et
l’accompagnement empathique en font une intervention Jungienne psychosociale pour
notre époque de transition. En Amérique Latine, les projets de travail expressif à l’aide
du jeu de sable ont été implantés en Colombie et en Argentine. Deux exemples
d’enfants qui y ont participé sont présentés.
Mots clés: travail expressif à l’aide du jeu de sable, méthode psychosociale, enfants dans
des communautés vulnérables, migrations, réfugiés et personnes déplacées, complexe
culturel, exemples Latino-Américains
In diesen Zeiten stellt das Migrationsphänomen weltweit eine Krise mit alarmierendem
Ausmaß dar. Kriege, Menschenrechtsverletzungen und Gewalt innerhalb von
Landesgrenzen haben viele Menschen dazu gebracht, Asyl zu suchen oder
Binnenvertreibungen ausgelöst. Wir nähern uns diesem Phänomen unter
Berücksichtigung der kulturellen Komplexe und verstehen es als einen Prozeß mit
vielfältigen psychologischen, sozialen und existentiellen Auswirkungen für die
Betroffenen. Wir finden diese Effekte in vielen Prozessen von Kinder symbolisiert, die
an Expressiven Sandarbeitsprojekten teilnehmen. Expressive Sandarbeit ist eine
transkulturelle, nonverbale Methode der therapeutischen Betreuung, die Kindern aus
gefährdeten Bevölkerungsgruppen, in denen Psychotherapie mangelhaft oder nicht
vorhanden ist, psychologische Unterstützung bietet. Ziel ist es, die Entstehung von
Bildern zu ermöglichen, die die Wiederverbindung mit dem kreativen Potential des
Kindes begünstigen und den Prozeß der Selbstregulation der Psyche aktivieren. Ihre
Basis in symbolischen Prozessen und empathischer Begleitung macht sie zu einer
Jungianischen psychosozialen Intervention für diese Übergangszeiten. In Lateinamerika
wurden Projekte mit Expressiver Sandarbeit in Kolumbien und Argentinien umgesetzt.
Zwei Beispiele von beteiligten Kindern werden vorgestellt.
Schlüsselwörter: Expressive Sandarbeit, psychosoziale Methode, Kinder in gefährdeten
Gemeinschaften, Migrationen, Flüchtlinge und Vertriebene, kultureller Komplex,
lateinamerikanische Beispiele
Expressive sandwork in vulnerable migratory populations 101
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In questi tempi il fenomeno migratorio è una crisi di allarmanti dimensioni a livello
mondiale. Guerre, violazioni dei diritti umani e violenze all’interno dei confini hanno
spinto molte persone a richiedere asilo o hanno forzato una migrazione interna.
Affrontiamo questo fenomeno prendendo in considerazione i complessi culturali,
intendendoli come un processo dai molteplici effetti psicologici, sociali ed esistenziali
per chi lo subisce. Troviamo questi effetti simboleggiati in molti dei processi dei
bambini che partecipano a progetti di Lavoro Espressivo con la Sabbia. Il Lavoro
Espressivo con la Sabbia è un metodo di cura transculturale e non-verbale che offre
supporto psicologico ai bambini di popolazioni vulnerabili in cui la psicoterapia è
carente o inesistente. L’obiettivo è quello di consentire l’emergere di immagini che
favoriscano la riconnessione con il potenziale creativo del bambino, attivando il
processo di auto-regolazione della psiche. La sua base nei processi simbolici e
nell’accompagnamento empatico lo rende un intervento psicosociale junghiano per
questi tempi di transizione. In America Latina, progetti di Lavoro Espressivo con La
Sabbia sono stati implementati in Colombia e Argentina. Due esempi dei bambini
partecipanti vengono presentati.
Parole chiave: Lavoro Espressivo con la Sabbia, metodo psicosociale, bambini in
comunità vulnerabili, migrazioni, rifugiati e sfollati, complesso culturale, esempi
latinoamericani
В наше время миграционный феномен представляет собой кризис пугающих
масштабов во всем мире. Войны, нарушения прав человека и насилие в родных
странах вынуждают многих людей искать убежища или быть подвергнутыми
принудительному внутреннему перемещению. Мы подходим к этому явлению с
учетом культурных комплексов, понимая его как процесс со множеством
психологических, социальных и экзистенциальных эффектов. Мы видим
символическое воплощение этих проявленией во многих процессах детей,
участвующих в проектах Экспрессивной работы с песком. Экспрессивная работа с
песком – это транскультурный невербальный метод терапевтической помощи,
который предлагает психологическую поддержку детям из уязвимых групп
населения, где психотерапия недостаточна или отсутствует. Цель работы состоит
в том, чтобы способствовать появлению образов, которые благоприятствуют
воссоединению ребенка с его творческим потенциалом, активизируют процесс
саморегуляции психики. Основа метода лежит в символических процессах и
эмпатическом сопровождении, мы можем называть его юнгианским
психосоциальным вмешательством во время переходных периодов. В Латинской
Америке проекты Экспрессивной работы с песком были реализованы в
Колумбии и Аргентине. Приведены два примера работы с детьми.
Ключевые слова: Ключевые словаэкспрессивная работа с песком, психосоциальный
метод, дети из уязвимых сообществ, миграция, беженцы и перемещенные лица,
культурный комплекс, примеры Латинской Америки
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En estos tiempos el fenómeno migratorio es una crisis con dimensiones alarmantes a
nivel mundial. Las guerras, la violación de los derechos humanos y la violencia al
interior de las fronteras han empujado a muchas personas a buscar asilo o al
desplazamiento forzado interno. Nos aproximamos a este fenómeno teniendo en
cuenta los complejos culturales y comprendiéndolo como un proceso con múltiples
efectos psicológicos, sociales y existenciales para quienes lo sufren. Estos efectos los
encontramos simbolizados en muchos de los procesos de los niños/as participantes en
los proyectos de Trabajo Expresivo con Arena. El Trabajo Expresivo con Arena es un
método de cuidado terapéutico no verbal y transcultural que ofrece apoyo psicológico
a niños/as de poblaciones vulnerables, donde la psicoterapia es deficiente o inexistente.
El objetivo es permitir el surgimiento de imágenes que favorezcan la reconexión con el
potencial creativo del niño/a, activando el proceso de autorregulación de su psique. Su
base en procesos simbólicos y en el acompañamiento empático, lo constituyen en una
intervención psicosocial de la psicología junguiana para estos tiempos de transición.
En Latinoamérica se han implementado proyectos de Trabajo Expresivo con Arena en
Colombia y Argentina. En este artículo se presentarán dos ejemplos de niños que
formaron parte de estos proyectos.
Palabras clave: Trabajo Expresivo con Arena, migraciones, método psicosocial, niños/as
en comunidades vulnerables
脆弱人群中的流浪现象和沙创作的表达
现代的流浪现象已成为一个全球性的, 令人担忧的危机。战争, 人权的侵害和在边
境上的暴力已经让许多人寻求政治避难以及被迫流离失所。我们探讨这个现象的时
候, 考虑到了文化情结, 把它理解为一个受害于此的个体所经历的过程, 其中涉及多元
心理、社会、和存在主义效应。我们在许多参加了表达性沙工作的孩子的进程中, 看
到了这种效应的象征性表达。表达性沙工作是一种跨文化的, 非语言的疗愈方法, 它
给那些来自于弱势人群的儿童以心理支持, 他们可能很难或是无法获得心理治疗。其
目标是允许一些意象的浮现, 这些意象可以促进儿童与创造性潜能重新建立联系, 启
动心灵自我修复的历程。它所根植的象征性的过程以及相伴随的共情性, 让它成为适
合于转变时期的一种荣格取向的心理社会干预方法。在拉丁美洲, 表达性沙创作计划
已经在哥伦比亚和阿根廷实施。文章呈现了两个儿童的案例。
关键词: 表达性沙创作, 心理社会方法, 弱势国家的儿童, 移民, 难民和流动人群, 文化
情结, 拉美案例
Nestes tempos, o fenômeno migratório é uma crise com dimensões alarmantes em todo o
mundo. Guerras, violações dos direitos humanos e violência dentro das fronteiras
levaram muitas pessoas a buscar asilo ou deslocamento interno forçado. Abordamos
esse fenômeno levando em consideração os complexos culturais, entendendo-o como
um processo com múltiplos efeitos psicológicos, sociais e existenciais para aqueles que
o sofrem. Encontramos esses efeitos simbolizados em muitos dos processos das
crianças que participam de projetos Expressive Sandwork. O Expressive Sandwork é
Expressive sandwork in vulnerable migratory populations 103
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um método transcultural e não verbal de cuidados terapêuticos que oferece apoio
psicológico a crianças de populações vulneráveis onde a psicoterapia é deficiente ou
inexistente. O objetivo é permitir o surgimento de imagens que favoreçam a reconexão
com o potencial criativo da criança, ativando o processo de autorregulação do
psiquismo. Sua base em processos simbólicos e acompanhamento empático o torna
uma intervenção psicossocial junguiana para esses tempos de transição. Na América
Latina, projetos Expressive Sandwork foram implementados na Colômbia e na
Argentina. Dois exemplos das crianças participantes são
Palavras-chave: Sandwork expressivo, método psicossocial, crianças em comunidades
vulneráveis, migrações, refugiados e pessoas deslocadas, complexo cultural, exemplos
latino-americanos

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